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[[ Download Ebook ]] á The Italian Wars, 1494-1559: War, State and Society in Early Modern Europe â The Italian Wars of had a major impact on the whole of Renaissance Europe In this important text, Michael Mallett and Christine Shaw place the conflict within the political and economic context of the wars Emphasising the gap between aims and strategies of the political masters and what their commanders and troops could actually accomplish on the ground, they analyse developments in military tactics and the tactical use of firearms and examine how Italians of all sectors of society reacted to the wars and the inevitable political and social change that they brought aboutThe history of Renaissance Italy is currently being radically rethought by historians This book is a major contribution to this re evaluation, and will be essential reading for all students of Renaissance and military history The Italian Wars 1494 1559 changed the political landscape of the Italian Peninsula in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries The Italian states, including Milan, Florence, Venice, Rome, and Naples, that had dominated Renaissance Italy were invaded and controlled by the foreign leaders and armies of France, Spain, and the Holy Roman Empire during a series of eight wars These conflicts began with a French invasion of Italy in 1494 and ended with Spanish dominance in Italy in 1559 D The Italian Wars 1494 1559 changed the political landscape of the Italian Peninsula in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries The Italian states, including Milan, Florence, Venice, Rome, and Naples, that had dominated Renaissance Italy were invaded and controlled by the foreign leaders and armies of France, Spain, and the Holy Roman Empire during a series of eight wars These conflicts began with a French invasion of Italy in 1494 and ended with Spanish dominance in Italy in 1559 During this sixty five year period the Italian Wars brought major shifts in the balance of power in Italy and Europe, military organization, and diplomatic practice Despite the importance of these conflicts, the Italian Wars have surprisingly lacked a comprehensive study in the English language that examines these political, diplomatic and military issues Dr Michael Mallett, Emeritus Professor of History at the University of Warwick and a distinguished historian of fifteenth and sixteenth century Italy, began this much needed study of the Italian Wars in the outstanding Modern Wars in Perspective series He is the author of The Borgias The Rise and Fall of a Renaissance Dynasty 1969 , Mercenaries and Their Masters Warfare in Renaissance Italy 1974 , and co author along with John R Hale of The Military Organization of a Renaissance State Venice, c.1400 to 1617 1984 Unfortunately, Mallett became ill and died before he could turn his extensive research on the Italian Wars into a complete study After his death, Dr Christine Shaw, a Research Fellow at Swansea University, used Mallett s notes, along with her own research to complete the work Shaw is known for her work that includes Julius II The Warrior Pope 1993 and as editor Italy and the European Powers The Impact of War, 1500 1530 2006 This study depicts the politics, diplomacy, and conduct of war during the Italian Wars It is well written and organized The book is based on primary and secondary works Mallett and Shaw depict Italian politics and combinations of alliances of the numerous Italian states in the complex series of Italian wars involving the great powers of France, Spain, and the Holy Roman Empire, along with involvement by England, Scotland, and even the Ottoman Empire The authors explore the Italian conflicts from the opening dispute between Charles VIII of France and Ferdinand of Aragon over hereditary control of the Duchy of Milan and Kingdom of Naples in the late fifteenth century to the creation of various alliances between the great powers and Italian states to prevent one power s domination over the Italian Peninsula to the various wars between Francis I of France and the Emperor Charles V, including the dramatic battle of Pavia 1525 and sack of Rome 1527 to the various temporary peace settlements, and finally Philip II of Spain s defeat of France and control of most of Italy, including Milan and Naples, in the Peace of Cateau Cambr sis in 1559 Mallett wrote the two chapters that might interest students and scholars of military history the most In The Transformation of War the author discusses military weapons and the balance of arms, the impact of gunpowder weapons, fortifications and siegecraft, the rise of professional standing armies, military training and skills, tactics and strategy, leadership, the war at sea, and the experience of war In this chapter he stresses the rising value of infantry over cavalry in the Italian Wars, noting the effectiveness of Swiss and German pike infantry as well as massed Spanish arquebusiers He points out the creation of small, professional standing armies that were supplemented by militias and mercenary forces The author describes infantry tactics and weapons, along with the employment of artillery Contrary to what many believe, Mallett argues that the French artillery did not make a great contribution to Charles VIII s successful march through Italy in 1494 95 p.182 He goes further to say that In the last resort, guns artillery contributedto a shift towards defence than to one towards blitzkrieg The majority of guns manufactured and employed by the European powers were sited in defensive works, on the walls of towns and castles, guarding routes, all encouraging the development of bastions and earthwork emplacements p.183 He stresses that the construction of the new style of fortifications, the so called trace italienne, were being built before the French invasion in 1494 In the second chapter, The Resources of War, Mallett explores the resources and logistics of the armies involved in the Italian Wars He discusses the recruitment and mobilization of infantry and cavalry units, military ordinances involving the muster and control of armies, billeting and supply of the armies, pay, naval resources, and the cost of war The Italian Wars consist of a complex, at times confusing, puzzle of political issues, alliances, and military actions by numerous actors and states Shaw expertly handles these issues However, a novice to the Italian Wars may find it difficult to follow her narrative at times She frequently fails to cite dates the year of particular events, which if included, would make it easier for readers to follow her narrative and arguments A chronology of major events would have been extremely beneficial The Italian Wars, 1494 1559 is highly recommended to students and scholars interested in the politics, diplomacy, and warfare of Early Modern Europe The study fills a void for a comprehensive study of the Italian Wars in the historiography of warfare, and will be an important study for years to come For those individuals interested in readingabout the Italian Wars, there are many scholarly journal articles, essays, and monographs on different aspects of the politics and diplomacy of the era But, there are few military studies These studies include the influential Frederick L Taylor, The Art of War in Italy, 1494 1529 1921 , Charles Oman, A History of the Art of War in the Sixteenth Century 1937 , Simon Pepper and Nicholas Adams, Firearms and Fortifications Military Architecture and Siege Warfare in Sixteenth Century Sienna 1986 , David Abulafia editor , The French Descent into Renaissance Italy, 1494 1495 1995 , David Nicolle, Fornovo, 1495 France s Bloody Fighting Retreat 1996 , Angus Konstam, Pavia, 1525 The Climax of the Italian Wars 1996 , as well as Maurizio Arfaioli, The Black Bands of Giovanni Infantry and Diplomacy during the Italian Wars 1526 1528 2005 An invaluable resource for anyone interested in early modern Italy, The Italian Wars, 1494 1559 summarizes the events of this extremely turbulent period The book is arranged chronologically and lays out the continuously changing alliances and contra alliances, the causes and consequences of battles and conflicts, and its toll, be it political or human Three additional chapters interspersed throughout the book help us take a step back and reflect on the wars, its means weaponry, finances, etc An invaluable resource for anyone interested in early modern Italy, The Italian Wars, 1494 1559 summarizes the events of this extremely turbulent period The book is arranged chronologically and lays out the continuously changing alliances and contra alliances, the causes and consequences of battles and conflicts, and its toll, be it political or human Three additional chapters interspersed throughout the book help us take a step back and reflect on the wars, its means weaponry, finances, etc and objectives A real primer A caveat, though it s a very dense book, bordering sometimes on being unreadable because of the extensive name dropping without elaborate introductions Events, and the people playing a part in them, follow each other in such dizzying speed, it s easy to lose the overview of who s on whose side and why or why not any I think this book would have profited frompages to narrate this long and complex history or from ageneral treatment with deeper analysis The only chapters I had no difficulty in following the sequence of events were the ones treating parts of history of which I already had a substantial knowledge and the three additional, analytical chapters which were very lucidly written All in all, an important contribution to the field of military history This book is a major contribution to our knowledge of the Early Modern warfare and diplomacy It is the first true narrative of the Italian wars, the one we wanted for so long Although some parts of the book are hard to read due to the chaotic maelstrom of small events, it will be an invaluable reference book for many years to come The book has successfully changed some of my perceptions of the sixteenth century warfare despite tons of previous literature I was equally amused to read about th This book is a major contribution to our knowledge of the Early Modern warfare and diplomacy It is the first true narrative of the Italian wars, the one we wanted for so long Although some parts of the book are hard to read due to the chaotic maelstrom of small events, it will be an invaluable reference book for many years to come The book has successfully changed some of my perceptions of the sixteenth century warfare despite tons of previous literature I was equally amused to read about the web of diplomacy where all allegiances are temporary, suspicions are everywhere and ambitions are eternal At the end the wars itself ultimately made sense to me, which is a move forward past the usual talks about dynastic ambitions and considerations of prestige Last but not least, it was fascinating to read about the history of the very places I loved to visit, like the remaining walls and ramparts of Lucca there is a loveliest walk path on top of them or magnificent walls of the Castle St.Angelo and places in Rome where victorious landsknechts left their mark